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Gilpin identifies the reversals suffered by both groups on the battlefield in early and the thinking that both groups could gain from the publicity as its basis for arguing further that while ISIS needed to project the notion of an expanding global caliphate that is firmly under its control, Boko Haram was struggling to burnish its credentials beyond Nigeria.
The externalization of the crises was not limited to the Boko Haram sect alone. Thus, in seeking to prevent the tentacle of the group from growing and also uproot them effectively at home and in neighboring African countries, particularly through the establishment of joint security patrols, Nigeria signed both bilateral and multilateral security agreements with Cameroon in February and Niger in October This was in addition to other pacts with strategic partners like Britain for counterterrorism training.
Originally established in to combat trans-border banditry in northern Nigeria and comprising troops from Cameroon, Niger, Chad, and Benin, its scope was expanded to tackle the sect in the West African subregion and provide a platform to engage in counterterrorism Falode, a , b.
Gilpin also identifies other challenges such as difficult coordination due to distraction of members by other domestic issues and the slump in oil prices, which had affected operations and deployment from Chad and Nigeria, two countries that account for almost half of the pledge. With an initial mandate lasting 12 months and headed by a Nigerian commander, with a Cameroonian deputy and a Chadian chief of staff in what appeared like an ad hoc arrangement Comolli, , p.
There were also the problems of mistrust among members of the Task Force; uneven levels of training, professionalism, and capability; poor equipment; and an inability to operate hurriedly purchased equipment Comolli, , pp.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Beyond al-Qaeda. The Global Jihadist Movement. PART 1. Angel Rabasa • Peter Chalk. Examines al-Qaeda's evolution and the development of the global jihadist movement.
These challenges notwithstanding, the MNJTF has made significant progress wresting control of territory from the Boko Haram sect, destroying their bases and containing the movement of forces and materials in the Lake Chad basin region Falode, a , b ; Gilpin, The Boko Haram crises have grown in scope and dimension, with the group metamorphosing and changing strategies, seeking international links, and assuming greater notoriety given its growing sophistication and brutality, its massive destruction of lives and properties, and its threat to national, regional, and international security.
Given its global dimension, Islamism also defines the limit of national and transnational military forces and in a way the inability to define how and when the war will end. But when it is considered that, unlike conventional warfare where the battle line is appropriately defined, insurgency with no definite battleground is more complex and could be far-reaching, it is understandable why the war on terror, whether at the level of Boko Haram or global jihad groups like al-Qaeda and ISIS, will take a long time to bring under effective control.
The examples of countries that have experienced guerilla war and other forms of insurgencies are pertinent in this regard. Beyond the traditional militaristic way of dealing with religious riots and later insurgency, the employment of subtle approaches, such as encouraging insurgents to lay down their arms through dialogue and propaganda, followed by a well-thought-out process of deradicalization and rehabilitation, will go a long way to deplete the ranks of the Boko Haram sect.
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The central role played by Mohammed Yusuf in the evolution and growth of the sect is brought out in the first part of the article. Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen. The jihadist movement has been torn between globalism and localism. The first volume looks at the ideology of the movement, its tactics, finances, and the "nebula" of Al-Qaeda that includes local affiliate groups from Southeast Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Caucasus, and of course, Iraq. For Boko Haram, violence is not a perversion of Islam, it is a justifiable means to a pure end Campbell, These alleged apostates included leaders of Muslim countries, since they failed to enforce sharia law.
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Weeraratne, S. Theorizing the expansion of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Terrorism and Political Violence , 29 4 , — Williams, P. Religion, violence and displacement in Nigeria. Journal of Asian and African Studies , 32 , 33— Another source said that nearly 20 of the sect members were killed see Salkida, Other sources reported that as many as people were killed in Maiduguri alone see Loimeier, , p.
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